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Outstanding persons of Tajikistan

Emomali Rahmon
Founder of Peace and National Unity - Leader of the Nation, President of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Emomali Rahmon was born on October 5, 1952 in the Dangara region of the Republic of Tajikistan in the family of a farmer.

He began his career in 1969 after graduating from vocational school №40 of the city of Kalininabad (now - Sarband), as a master electrician of the Kurgan-Tyubinsk creamery.

In 1971-1974 he served in the Pacific Fleet. After demobilization, he went to work at the Lenin state farm in the Dangara region.

In 1982 he graduated from the Faculty of Economics of the Tajik National University.

In 1976-1987, he served as secretary of the board and chairman of the trade union committee of the Lenin state farm in the Dangara region. Then he worked in the party organs.

From 1987 to 1992, he was the director of the Lenin state farm in the Dangara region.

In 1990, Emomali Rahmon was elected to be an MP of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Tajikistan of the XII convocation.

In autumn 1992, he was elected by the Executive Committee of the Council of MPs' of the Kulyab region.

On November 19, 1992, at the XVI session of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Tajikistan, Emomali Rahmon was elected to be the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Tajikistan.

On November 6, 1994, Emomali Rahmon was elected to be the President of the Republic of Tajikistan by popular vote.

On November 6, 1999, on an alternative basis and by popular vote, Emomali Rahmon is re-elected to the post of President of the Republic of Tajikistan for a seven-year term.

On November 6, 2006, as a result of free, clear and democratic elections held on an alternative basis, Emomali Rahmon was elected by popular vote for the third time to the post of President of the Republic of Tajikistan for a seven-year term.

On November 6, 2013, Emomali Rahmon, gaining 84.23% of the vote, won the regular presidential elections in the Republic of Tajikistan.

On October 11, 2020, Emomali Rahmon, having received 90.92% of the vote, again won the election of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan.

In accordance with the Constitutional Law of the Republic of Tajikistan "On the Founder of Peace and National Unity - the Leader of the Nation", President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon is recognized as the Founder of Peace and National Unity - the Leader of the Nation, for the greatest and unique services to the people of Tajikistan.

He is the Hero of Tajikistan (since 1999).

Married and has got 9 children.

During the period when the glorious and worthy son of the people, Emomali Rahmon, was for the first time elected the head of the state, our Motherland - Tajikistan, which had just become independent - was going through tragic days. The bloody war and conflict between the Tajiks, which led to huge material damage and large human losses, threatened the integrity of the country and the very existence of the Tajik nation.

Due to wise decisions, steadfastness and exceptional courage, Emomali Rahmon saved the country from the threat of disaster, rallied the people and returned thousands of refugees to their homeland.

Due to the firm will of the Head of State, in a short time everything destroyed was restored, new objects appeared, a "Highway of Unity" was built, providing a permanent connection between all corners of the country, and highways that allow the republic to get direct access to the ocean and expand relations with countries of distant and near abroad.

All the most important achievements and successes of the country are the result of the selfless work and courageous steps of Emomali Rahmon.

The reward for these tremendous efforts was the love and respect that Emomali Rahmon won from the people of Tajikistan and from tens of thousands of foreign compatriots. He also won great respect from the world community, which each time shows him signs of attention as an authoritative Head of Tajikistan, an experienced politician and an exponent of universal human values and ideals.

The greatest achievement of Emomali Rahmon is undoubtedly the establishment of lasting peace and national unity. The bitter experience of internal wars in the world testifies to the fact that not a single state has been able to defeat its rivals on the battlefield and stand at the head of the state apparatus, command structures and military bodies, using weapons, military equipment and its soldiers.

By ensuring peace and national unity, Emomali Rahmon laid a solid foundation for the transition to the stage of economic recovery and the start of creative deeds.

Meanwhile, more than 150 countries of the world have officially recognized the state independence of the Republic of Tajikistan. The Republic of Tajikistan has recognized the UN Charter, the Helsinki Final Act, the Paris Declaration and other international agreements - and carries out its domestic and foreign policy, protecting human rights, regardless of national, religious or racial affiliation.

Emomali Rahmon made a huge contribution to increasing the international authority and prestige of Tajikistan, to solving global problems. Repeatedly speaking from the high rostrum of the UN, he drew the attention of the world community not only to the problems of Tajikistan, but also to the issues of Afghanistan, the fight against terrorism, extremism and drug smuggling, the uneven development of the states of the world, and the provision of population of the world with clean water. In particular, he attracted the world community to the solution of the problem of Afghanistan, which was turning into a base of terrorism and extremism.

President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon also takes a forward-looking and serious approach to the most important issues related to the future of humanity. At the suggestion of Emomali Rahmon, the United Nations proclaimed 2003 the International Year of Clean Water, and 2005-2015 as the “Water for Life” Decade. Currently, most international and regional events are held within the framework of this Decade, therefore, this initiative of the Head of State causes a sense of pride in every citizen of Tajikistan.

For twenty years of independence, our country under the leadership of Emomali Rahmon walked confidently along the path of building an independent democratic state. During this time, Tajikistan has its own Flag, Coat of Arms and Anthem. The main foundations of statehood - the national army and border troops - emerged and strengthened. Tajikistan was admitted as a member of authoritative international organizations and established political, economic and cultural ties with most countries of the world. The foundations of the constitutional system and state administration were streamlined, the national currency was introduced into circulation, and the national passport was recognized.

Thus, the historical merits of Emomali Rahmon lie in the fact that it was he, who took over the government, prevented the threat of its disappearance, extinguished the flames of civil war, restored paralyzed power structures, especially law enforcement agencies, created the national army and border troops, provided conditions for consolidation of power and state, guaranteed peace for the nation, returned refugees and internally displaced persons to their homeland. He laid a solid foundation for building a new society in Tajikistan, carried out a constitutional reform in the country, created a new Constitution (Basic Law) of Tajikistan, provided the political and legal basis for the signing of the General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord on June 27, 1997. Emomali Rahmon achieved peace among Tajiks, which was an instructive experience for the world community. He created the conditions for national revival, laid the foundation for creative deeds, radically improved the socio-economic situation of the people, eliminated the threat of hunger and contributed to the growth of the political authority of the state in the international arena.

For his invaluable contribution to ensuring peace in Tajikistan and strengthening the security of the region, other outstanding achievements in expanding friendly relations and cooperation between nations, Emomali Rahmon was awarded high titles and awards from states and various organizations of the world.

The merits of Emomali Rahmon both within the country and abroad are generally recognized. For his valuable contribution to the development of the common human community, he was awarded the Gold Star of Albert Schweitzer and the honorary title of Professor of the World Medical Academy in the section of the humanities. He was the first of the world's politicians to receive such a high award.

In 2005, on the eve of the celebration of the Day of National Unity, President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon was awarded another high award - the gold medal "For strengthening peace and harmony among peoples" of the International Federation of Peace and Accord. It should be noted that among the heads of the CIS member states, Emomali Rahmon was the first to receive such an award.

Over the years, Emomali Rahmon was also awarded the "Star of Patron" diamond order - the highest award of the International Charity Fund "Patrons of the Century", the "National Hero of Afghanistan - Ahmadshah Masud" order, the award of the International Fund of Writers and Journalists of the Turkish Republic, Ruby Star "Peacemaker", Gold Medal of the People's Assembly (Parliament) of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Badge of Honor of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Order of the Olympic Council of Asia, Gold Medal of Honor for Mavlono Jaloliddin Balkhi (Rumi) UNESCO, Gold Order of the Revival of the Silk Road, Gold Medal named after Nikolai Blokhin - the highest award of the Academy of Medical Sciences Russian, Order of the 3 Stars of the 1st degree of the Republic of Latvia, the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise of the 1st degree of Ukraine, Nishoni Pokiston (Sign of Pakistan) - the highest state award of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the highest order of the Russian Federation, the Order of Alexander Nevsky and a number of other awards and prizes.

At the new stage of building the young state of Tajikistan, fate bestowed upon the ancient Tajik nation in the person of a unique historical personality - the President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon - a person who represents the highest qualities - justice, generosity, courage, compassion and the unique ability to unite people. It was the combination of these qualities that brought society to a high level of self-knowledge.

It was due to the consistent efforts of Emomali Rahmon that at the end of the twentieth century Tajikistan was saved from national tragedy and strengthened its state independence, in virtue of which the Tajik nation, after a millennium, achieved outstanding achievements on the path of national revival and is moving confidently towards a better, prosperous and self-sufficient future.


Sadridding Ayni
Hero of the Republic of Tajikistan, writer, scientist.

The history of Soviet Tajik literature begins with his March of Freedom, composed to the world-famous theme of the Marseillaise in 1918.

Sadriddin Aini was born on April 15, 1878 in the village of Soktar of the Gijduvan district of the Bukhara Khanate (now the Gizhduvan region: Bukhara region of the Uzbek SSR) in a farmer's family.

His father, a great lover of poetry, managed to place in the soul of the future writer, who was just beginning to master literacy, a love of literature and knowledge.

His mother came from the village of Makhalai Bolo, Shafirkan region (now the Bukhara region of the Republic of Uzbekistan). In 1890, during a cholera epidemic, father and mother died almost simultaneously.

Sadriddin left his native village and moved to Bukhara (September 1890) and entered a madrasah, a religious educational institution traditional for Muslim countries, as if combining secondary and higher education.

While studying in a madrasah, he earns for living by doing laundry, serving in rich houses, cleaning. Aini was closely acquainted with prominent Bukharian intellectuals: Sadri Ziyo, Damulla Ikramcha and others.

It was not the Russian state as such that changed Ayni's life, but the Russian Jadids-Tatars, whose community arose both in Bukhara and in its railway station New Bukhara (Kagan).

Sadriddin Aini was a member of the movement of enlighteners - Jadids. He embarks on the path of educational activity - takes an active part in organizing the first new method schools in Bukhara for Tajik children, writes textbooks, poems, stories for them, asserting secular knowledge in opposition to religious Muslim theology.

The persecution of the authorities forced S. Ayni in 1915-1916. hide outside Bukhara. He has been working for about a year as a weigher at a ginnery in Kizil-Teppa.

In April 1917, during the rampant reaction caused by the provocative Jadid demonstration in honor of the scanty reforms announced by the Emir, S. Ayni was punished with 75 cane strikes and thrown into prison.

Together with other political prisoners, he was released from prison by Russian revolutionary soldiers and, after two months of treatment in a hospital in Kagan, moved to Samarkand for permanent residence.

In 1918, the emir executed S. Ayni's younger brother out of revenge. Since 1918, he unequivocally found himself on the side of the opponents of the emir's regime, and together with the left wing of the Jadids-Young Bukharians, he drifted towards the Bolsheviks.

In 1920, he supported the revolution in the emirate and the creation of the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic. On June 15, 1926, Ayni became a literary employee of the branch of the Tajik State Publishing House opened in Samarkand.

There were no other literary colleagues at that time. Some time after the creation of the Bukhara People's Republic, he was elected a member of the Central Executive Committee of the republic, and after the creation of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic for a number of years he worked in the Tajik representative office in Samarkand, in the Samarkand branch of the Tajik State Publishing House.

By creation of the Tajik Socialist Republic in 1929, he was elected as a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Tajik SSR. In 1934, at the All-Union Congress of Writers, he was also elected a member of the Board of the Union of Writers of the USSR.

S. Ayni was repeatedly elected a deputy of the Dushanbe and Samarkand city councils, twice (1937, 1947) of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR.

In 1940, S. Ayni was awarded the title of Honored Scientist of the Tajik SSR for his great services in the field of literary criticism.

In 1943 he was elected an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR, and later he was awarded the title of Honored Scientist of the Uzbek SSR.

In 1949, the Academic Council of the Leningrad State University named after V.I. Zhdanova confers on him the scientific degree of Doctor of Philology without defending a thesis, and the Higher Attestation Commission - the title of professor.

For the first time he compiled an anthology of Tajik national folk arts "Samples of Tajik literature". Since 1951, the first president of the Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR. Deputy of the USSR SU of 3-4 convocations (since 1950).

Ayni was among the organizers of the Samarkand State University in 1927, which was then called the Academy.

The author of works on the history and literature of the nations of Central Asia, in addition to his native Tajik, he knew the Uzbek language perfectly and wrote some of his works in both languages.

In 1920 he wrote his first story - "Bukhara's Executioners". Then in 1924 his new story “Odina” was published in the newspaper “Ovozi tojik” (“Voice of the Tajik”).

In 1930, Ayni's novel Dohunda was published, dedicated to the recent past of the Tajik peasantry, its struggle against the tyranny of the Emirs and their henchmen.

In 1934, the historical novel "Slaves" appeared - a broad epic picture of the struggle and life of the Tajik people for more than a century before the victory of the socialist revolution and the collective farm system. A prominent place in the writer's work was occupied by the story "The Death of a Usurer" (1939).

In it, the writer painted a grotesque-satirical image of the curmudgeon Kori-Ishkamba, Kori the belly. During the Great Patriotic War, Ayni wrote two historical stories - "The Uprising of Mukanna" and "Hero of the Tajik people Temur Malik".

In the early 50s, the first parts of the epic "Yoddoshto" - "Memoirs" were published (the book was also published in English under the name "Bukhara"). However, death prevented the writer from bringing the story to its intended end.

Nonetheless, Memoirs is an outstanding work of Soviet multinational literature.


Bobojon Gafurov
Hero of the Republic of Tajikistan, scientist.

Bobodzhan Gafurov - Soviet statesman and party leader, historian, 1st secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan (1946-1956), director of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1968).

Born in the village of Ispisar in the Khojent district of the Samarkand region. Mother - poetess Rozia Ozod (born 1893). He graduated from the All-Union Communist Institute of Journalism (1935). Member of the CPSU since 1932.

Conducted pedagogical work in the universities of Tajikistan and was engaged in journalism. In 1936 - deputy of the chief editor of the newspaper "Kzyl Tajikistan".

At the same time, from October 1936, he was in a leading position in the press sector of the Propaganda and Agitation Department of the Central Committee of the CPT. Since November 1937 - head of the press and publishing department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan.

He worked as the chief editor of the newspaper "Behudoyoni Tojikiston" (Russian "Atheist of Tajikistan"). From 1941 to 1944 - secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Tajikistan for propaganda, from 1944 to 1946 - second secretary, from 1946 to 1956 - first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan.

At the same time, from 1948 to April 1951, he was the first secretary of the Stalinabad regional committee of the CP (b) T. At the 19th (1952) and 20th (1956) Party Congresses, he was elected a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the 2-5th, 7th convocations. Works on the history of the peoples of Central Asia and the history of Islam. The main book is "Tajiks", dedicated to the history of the nation.

He believed that the process of consolidation of Tajiks from tribes into a single nation had not yet been completed and for this process it was necessary to create a national history. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR (1951).

Historian-archaeologist B. A. Litvinsky claimed that the book "Tajiks" was actually written by him together with his wife E. A. Davidovich; this statement provoked protests from Tajik scientists.

Rumors that Gafurov's works were actually written by other people also circulated at the Institute of Oriental Studies. According to the memoirs of I. M. Dyakonov, "the only one of all the first secretaries, he realized that this situation may not be eternal, and wisely published his own book" History of Tajikistan ".

Who wrote it, I don't know. My brother M. M. wrote a rather negative review of it, not taking into account the fact that in the future, as an archaeologist, he will still have to work in Tajikistan. But Gafurov was not offended, but published a new edition of the book with amendments, after which he was elected as a full member of the republican academy. "

Since 1956 - Director of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He has established himself as a cautious and balanced administrator who knew how to extinguish conflicts, "an energetic and capable organizer" (IM Dyakonov), "Easterner" (FA Toder).

At the same time, he was very tough, up to the moment dismissals, towards employees who made political statements and “signatories”; the leader of the Stalinist generation was also felt in him.

V.M. Alpatov considers Gafurov's directorship to be the best period in the life of the institute. Under Gafurov, many young employees appeared at the institute, including former repressed, demobilized military personnel, for the first time a special linguistic structure was created - the Department of Languages, trips of Soviet orientalists to the countries under study began, and the Publishing House of Oriental Literature was created.

Corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the Department of Historical Sciences (history of the USSR, archeology) since June 20, 1958, Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the Department of History (general history) since November 26, 1968.

In recent years, he actually retired due to illness, although he remained in office until the end of his life. E.M. Primakov was. E.M. Primakov was Gafurov's successor at the head of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

In 1974, a high-ranking communist, Gafurov, performed the hajj on a visit to Mecca, which caused a sensation. This event was explained both as a sincere appeal to religion and as a political move aimed at improving relations between the USSR and Saudi Arabia.

In the memoirs of I.M.Dyakonov, this episode is stated as follows: Bobojon Gafurov died on July 12, 1977 in Dushanbe.

Buried there. He was awarded 6 Orders of Lenin, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor and medals. In 1978, a city (now a settlement) in the Leninabad region of Tajikistan, formerly called Sovetobad, was named after him.

He is one of the six heroes of Tajikistan (posthumously). In the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in addition to the portrait of Gafurov, the gallery of directors also contains his portrait woven on a carpet.


Mirzo Tursun-zade
Hero of the Republic of Tajikistan, poet.

Mirzo Tursun-Zade is a famous Tajik Soviet poet. Born on April 19 (May 2), 1911 in the village of Karatag (now the Regar district of Tajikistan).

Prominent statesman and public figure, deputy of the USSR Armed Forces, member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan, Chairman of the Soviet Committee of Solidarity of Asian and African Countries, member of the Soviet Peace Committee, member of the All-Union Committee on Lenin and State Prizes of the USSR in the field of literature, art and architecture, chairman of the Peace Committee, Chairman of the Committee for Awarding the State Prizes of the Tajik SSR named after

Rudaki, a member of the editorial board of the poet's library of the publishing house "Soviet Writer" and a 200-volume library of world literature, a member of the Main Editorial Board of the Tajik Soviet Encyclopedia, a full member of the Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR (since 1951).

He wrote in Russian and Tajik. Almost all of the poet's works have been translated into Russian, have been repeatedly published in republican and all-Union printed media, in literary collections, as well as in separate books.

He translated into the Tajik language many works of Russian writers and writers of the republics of the USSR: A. Pushkin, T. G. Shevchenko, N. A. Nekrasov, Dzhambul, Shota Rustaveli, Sh. R. Rashidov, Zulfiya and others.

He died on September 24, 1977 in Dushanbe. In 2011, according to the decision of UNESCO, the 100th anniversary of Mirzo Tursun-Zade was celebrated in Tajikistan and around the world.


Nusratullo Makhsum
Hero of the Republic of Tajikistan, statesman and a public figure.

Nusratullo Makhsum was born in 1881 in the village of Chashmai, Kozi, Garm region, into a family of farmers. From childhood, he helped his parents and thus learned the hard work of the farmer.

For three years he studied at a local school. Difficult financial conditions of life forced him to leave early home, places close to his heart and seek happiness on the side.

Like many other from the number of Tajiks of mountains, he went to work in the industrial cities of the Turkestan Territory. He worked as a loader at a private factory in Kokand (1895-1906).

He was fired for participating in the riots. He returned to his native village, where he worked on his own farm (1906-1920).

Soon after the riots that led to the distraction of the Bukhara Emir, he joined the RCP (b) (December 1920). In 1921-1923. - Chairman of the Garm Regional Food Supply Committee of the Red Army, was the authorized CEC of the Bukhara NSR for Eastern Bukhara affairs, a member of the Emergency Commission of the CEC of the Bukhara NSR for Eastern Bukhara.

In 1923-1924. - Deputy Chairman of the Deputy Chairman of the Garm Revolutionary Committee and Chairman of the East Bukhara (Tajik) Regional Executive Committee.

Since October (according to other sources since December 1) 1924 - Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Uzbekistan (1925-1930).

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Tajik ASSR (1926-1929), Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Tajik SSR (1929-1933). Member of the Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) of Tajikistan (1930-1933).

With the transformation of Tajikistan into a union republic, he was elected one of the Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (1931-1934). The moderate position of the Tajik leadership in relation to the wealthy peasantry during the collectivization period was recognized as erroneous at a meeting of the Political beaurou of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks on December 5, 1933.

Following this resolution, the fourth emergency session of the Central Executive Committee of the Tajik December SSR (27 1933) fired Abdurrahim Khodzhibaev and Maksum of the posts in SNK SSR for "anti-party and in many cases anti-Soviet" policy.

The chairman of the Council of Nationalities of the CEC of the USSR Tadjibaev demanded the removal of Maksum from the post of chairman of the CEC of the USSR during the session on January 4, 1934. The CEC approved this decision, replacing Maksum with another representative of Tajikistan - A. Rakhimbaev.

Maksum was sent to Moscow to study at the All-Union Planning Academy. And by the Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated June 26, 1964, Nusratullo Maksum was posthumously rehabilitated. By the decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan E. Rahmon was posthumously awarded the title "Hero of Tajikistan" (09.09.2006).


Shirinsho Shotemur
Hero of the Republic of Tajikistan, political, party and statesman.

Shirinsho Shotemor (Tajik. Shirinsho Shotemur, December 1, 1899, Porshinev village, Shugnan district - October 27, 1937, Moscow) - Tajik Soviet political, party and statesman.

He is one of the founding fathers of the Tajik SSR. Hero of Tajikistan (2006, posthumously). Shirinsho Shotemur (known as Shotemor in the history of the USSR) was born into the family of a poor peasant. Educated at the University of Workers of the East in Moscow (1929).

He graduated from a labor pedagogical school, then studied on pedagogical courses in Tashkent. Shirinsho Shotemur began his labor activity as a 13-year-old youth in the economy of the Pamir border division.

From 1914 to 1918 he worked at the Tashkent railway depot, as a worker at the Ivanov plant. Since 1919 he has been a worker in Tashkent.

In 1921 he joined the Republican Communist Party (b). In 1921-1924 the chairman of the revolutionary committee in the Pamirs, instructor of the Central Committee of the CP (b) of Tajikistan.

In 1921, Shirinsho Shotemur took part in the grain harvesting in the Khujand district. In the same year, he was sent to the Pamirs as part of the military-political trio.

Shotemur until 1923 worked as chairman of the Revolutionary Committee, and after the departure of chairman T.M.Dyakov, since 1922 he was simultaneously chairman of the military-political trio.

In 1923-1924 Shotemur worked as an instructor in the National Minorities Subdivision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan. At the same time, he led the Tajik communist section.

In 1925-1927 the People's Commissar of the Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection and authorized by the Central Committee of the CP (b) of the Uzbek SSR. He headed operations to destroy the Basmachi and their "accomplices" in Tajikistan. Since 1929, executive secretary of the Tajik regional committee of the CP (b) of Uzbekistan.

Shirinsho Shotemur is one of the main organizers of the creation of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and for this purpose, he gave a lot of strength, energy, and ultimately his life.

In 1924, when the first ever Tajik government was registered in Tashkent, Shirinsho Shotemur was appointed People's Commissar of the Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection and authorized by the Central Control Commission of the CP (b) of Uzbekistan in Tajikistan.

In addition to the main work, Shotemur was temporarily assigned the duties of the People's Commissar of Finance, the chairman of the commission for mutual assistance to party members and the leadership of the trio to carry out the economic regime in the republic.

In 1927, Shotemur worked as a permanent representative of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the Uzbek SSR. Then he was sent to study at the Moscow University of Workers of the East (MUWV).

At the second Tajik regional party conference (February 3-10, 1929) Shotemur was elected in absentia as a member of the regional party committee, and the first plenum of the regional party committee elected him the responsible (first) secretary of the Tajik regional party committee.

Shotemur made a great contribution to the annexation of the Khujand District to Tajikistan and the formation of the Tajik SSR.


Sotim Ulug-Zoda
author of the tragic history of the nation, writer.

Sotim Ulug-Zoda (September 11, 1911 - June 25, 1997) - Tajik Soviet writer. Since 1951, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR.

Sotim Ulug-Zoda was born on September 11, 1911 into a peasant family in the village of Varzyk (now the Namangan region of Uzbekistan).

Educated in Tashkent, where he graduated from the Tajik Institute of Education in 1929. Participated in the World War II. In 1944-1946 he headed the Writers' Union of the Tajik SSR.

The first small works of Ulug-Zod were published in 1930. In the late 1930s, drama became the main direction of his work.

In 1939, his play about cotton growers "Shodmon" was published, and in 1940 the heroic drama about the struggle against the Basmachi "Krasnopalochniki" (Kaltakdoroni surkh) was published.

The theme of the World War II was reflected in the drama "On Fire" (Dar otash). In 1947, Ulug-Zoda's drama “Noble Friends” (Yoroni Bohimmat, in Russian translation “Return”) was published.

It was followed by the comedy "The Seekers" (Juyandagon), the autobiographical story "The Morning of Our Life" (Subhi Javonia mo) and the novel "The Renewed Earth" (Dyori Navobod).

In 1967, Ulug-Zoda wrote the historical novel "Vose" about the riots of Tajik peasants against Bukhara officials. Another historical novel by Ulug-Zod was Firdousi (Firdavsi), published in 1980.

Ulug-Zoda is also known for the script for the film "Ibn-Sina" (Tajik Film Studio, 1956) and the drama "Rudaki", based on which the film "The Poet's Fate" was staged in 1959, which received the first prize and the Golden Eagle medal in 1960 At the second Asian and African Film Festival in Cairo.

Ulug-Zoda translated into Tajik language "What to do?" V. I. Lenin, "A Servant of Two Masters" by K. Goldoni, "The Gadfly" by E. Voynich, as well as a number of works by M. Gorky, A. N. Ostrovsky and A. P. Chekhov.


Mirsaid Mirshakar
Tajik Soviet poet and playwright, statesman and public figure.

Mirsaid Mirshakar (May 6, 1912, Sindev, Pamir Volost, Fergana Region, Russian Empire - August 1, 1993, Dushanbe, Tajikistan) - Soviet Tajik poet, one of the founders of Tajik children's literature, writer, playwright, editor, screenwriter, public and statesman ...

He studied at school in the village of Porshinev, then at the boarding school in Khorog. In 1930 he graduated from the courses of the Central School of Soviet and Party Building, after he worked as the secretary of the district committee of the Komsomol of the new Shuroabad district of the Kulyab region, in the newspaper Komsomoli Tojikiston, was the editor of the newspaper Zarbdori Sokhtmoni Vakhsh (“Shock worker of Vakhshstroy”) - one of the organizers of Vakhshstroy ... From 1934 to 1937 he served in the Red Army.

From 1937 - executive secretary, editor of the newspaper Vasiyati Lenin (Testaments of Lenin); in 1940-1943 - executive secretary of the board of the Writers' Union of the Tajik SSR, head of the repertoire committee of the Arts Department of the Council of People's Commissars of the Tajik SSR, member of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks since 1944.

In 1946-1959 he was the executive secretary of the board of the Writers' Union of the Tajik SSR, deputy head of the agitation and propaganda department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Tajik SSR.

He was elected a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR of the 3rd-9th convocations, from 1961-1975 he was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR. Member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Tajikistan since 1963. Since 1966 - Scientific Secretary, since 1978 - Chairman of the Committee for Awarding the State Prizes of the Tajik SSR named after A. Rudaki.

He headed the Tajik Committee of Solidarity of Asian and African Countries, was a member of the Presidium of the Soviet Committee of Solidarity of Asian and African Countries, the Presidium of the Board of the Writers' Union of the Tajik SSR, the Board of the Union of Writers of the USSR, was the chairman and secretary of the Board of the Union of Cinematographers of Tajikistan and a member of the Union of Cinematographers of the USSR (1963).

Member of the editorial board of ""Sadoi Shark"" magazine, ""Matal"" magazine (Pioneer) and the satirical magazine ""Horpushtak"" (Hedgehog).


Ismoili Somoni
Emir of the Samanid dynasty, founder of the state in Central Asia.

Ismoil Somoni - emir from the Samanid dynasty, the founder of the state in Central Asia.

There are several theories about Ismail's birthplace. Researchers mark Fergana and Balkh. Ismail was born into the family of a local aristocrat Ahmad, the son of Assad, the grandson of Saman-Khudat. Ismail was the governor of his brother Nasr in Bukhara (874-892).

In 888, he defeated his brother, but retained his power. Only after the death of his brother did he become the emir of Maverannahr and in 892 he was confirmed in this country as the caliph. After the elimination of civil strife and rebellions and the establishment of his autocracy, he had to deal with ensuring the security of the state from the raids of the Turkic nomads. In 893, he undertook a campaign to Taraz, conquered the city and the Talas valley, in which rich silver mines were located. The growing role of the Samanids in Maverannahr and the Saffarids in Khorasan greatly worried the Caliphs of Baghdad. In 898, the caliph issued a rescript about the deposition of Ismail and the appointment of Saffarid Amr ibn Leys as governor of Maverannahr. Despite this, after the victory in the battle of Balkh Ismail Samani (900), the caliph expressed his satisfaction to the winner.

The heritage of the Saffarids in Khorasan was disputed from the Samanid by Muhammad ibn Zeid, the ruler of Tabaristan. Ismail's commander Muhammad ibn Harun managed not only to expel the enemies from Khorasan, but even to conquer Tabaristan. However, after that, he rebelled against his sovereign, took white - the color of the rebels against the legitimate government - and captured Rey. Ismail himself had to oppose the rebellious commander. After defeating him, Rei and Qazvin were annexed to the Samanid state and, thus, the borders of the latter were established in the west (902). In 904, in the east, with the help of volunteers from other Muslim countries, the invasion of a large Turkic people was repelled.

The Samanid state was formed during the collapse of the Abbasid Caliphate. Ismail Samani (849-907) is considered the founder of the Samanid state, although the lands of Khorezm and Fararud were separated from the Caliphate several decades earlier - in 819 AD. In the 1st half of the 10th century, during the period of economic and cultural prosperity, the Samanid state included Maverannahr, Khorasan, Northern and Eastern Iran. A number of state formations - Khorezm, Ghazni and others - were in vassal dependence on the Samanids. The Samanid Empire (819‒999) was founded in what is now eastern Iran and Uzbekistan by Saman Khudat, a landowner from Balkh in northern Afghanistan. At its peak, this empire encompassed parts of modern Iran, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. It is known that the Samanids patronized trade, sciences and arts. They contributed to the spread of Persian and Islamic culture deep into Central Asia and even traded with certain regions of Europe. Some of the most significant cultural achievements of the Samanid era include the works of the poet Firdavsi, Samanid silver coins and new styles in ceramics.


Abu Ali Ibn Sino (Avicenna)
scientist, philosopher and a doctor.

Abu Ali Hussein Ibn Sina (Avicenna) was born on August 16, 980 in the village of Afshana near Bukhara, on the territory of modern Uzbekistan. He grew up as a very gifted child. So, at the age of ten, young Hussein already knew the Koran by heart. The boy studied Arabic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and medicine. At the age of 14, he read Aristotle's Metaphysics, which influenced his entire future life.

By the age of 17, Ibn Sina had become a famous doctor and was invited to the court of the Bukhara emir. The court doctors could not cure the Emir of Bukhara Nuh Ibn Mansur and turned to him for help. He used not only ancient treatises on medicine, but also his observations of the sick. Due to this, Avicenna was able to cure the Emir in a short time, and in gratitude for this, the young scientist received permission to use the palace library, which was considered one of the largest in the Near and Middle East.

In 1005, after the conquest of Bukhara by the Turkic dynasty of the Karakhanids, Ibn Sina moved to Khorezm, where he was nicknamed "the prince of doctors" for his wisdom. Refusing to serve the padishah Mahmud Gaznevi who conquered Khorezm, in 1008 Avicenna was expelled and wandered for seven years. He was able to settle in the Persian city of Jurjan, where he began work on the most famous treatise, the four-volume "Canon of Medicine".

Between 1015 and 1024, Ibn Sina lived in the Persian Hamadan. For the successful treatment of the Hamadan emir and for his shrewd mind, he received the position of vizier (adviser). Avicenna had enemies at court. Because of their intrigues, he was expelled from the city, but he was called back and reinstated in office when the emir fell ill again.

In 1024 Ibn Sina moved to the Persian Isfahan, whose ruler Ala ad-Dawla created all the conditions for his scientific work. Avicenna was not only his personal doctor, but also an advisor who accompanied him on military campaigns.

During one of these campaigns, Ibn Sina fell ill and died on June 24, 1037. Before his death, he gave an order to release all his slaves, rewarding them, and distribute all his property to the poor. He was buried in Hamadan near the city wall, and eight months later his ashes were transported to Isfahan and buried in the mausoleum of Al ad-Daul.

Avicenna's contribution to science and culture cannot be overestimated. It is known that Ibn Sina wrote more than 450 works in Arabic and Persian, of which most have survived to this day. This is not only the "Canon of Medicine" and other books by Ibn Sina on medicine, astronomy, physics, chemistry and philosophy, but also many of his poems. He also clothed his scientific works in poetic form. It is worth noting that the poet Omar Khayyam called Ibn Sina his teacher.


founder of Persian and Tajik literature, poet.

Rudaki was the founder of classical poetry in the Farsi language, Persian-Tajik literature began with him, he was the creator of genre poetic forms, the main dimensions of Persian poetry.

Born in about 860 (possibly 858) in the Tajik village of Panjrud. His pseudonym stands for "born in Panjrud." He became a famous person already in his youth, because he had a pronounced poetic talent, knew how to perfectly play the musical instrument ore, could be proud of an excellent voice. He had a good scholastic education, spoke Arabic very well, was an expert on the Koran.

According to the legend, all his vast store of knowledge was obtained without training anywhere, which was not prevented by congenital blindness. However, a number of scholars disagree that the famous poet was blind. According to their version, in the biography of Rudaki, there was such an episode as the desire of the Emir Amir Nasr to deprive him of his sight and take away all his property. Another poet advised the Emir to abandon this venture so as not to remain in history as a man who blinded the renowned poet. Ashamed, Emir Amir Nasr decided to endow Rudaki with generous gifts, but he refused.

Be that as it may, it is known that in his youth he was invited by the Samanid rulers to Bukhara, where he became the undoubted leader among the court poets. During the four decades he spent there, Rudaki achieved everything - fame, universal respect, wealth. He was called the nightingale of Khorasan. However, in his declining years, fortune ceased to smile at him: he became a disgraced poet, and he was expelled. It is not known why this happened, it is possible that an important factor was his loyalty to the popular riot that took place in Bukhara. Rudaki returned to his native village, where he died in 941.

His creative heritage is 130 thousand couplets (a thousand have remained to this day). The poem "The Mother of Wine", written in 933, the qasida "Complaints about old age" of autobiographical content and 40 rubai have come down in full. Also preserved are excerpts from works of a very different nature - lyrical, glorifying the ruler, philosophical and didactic. Rudaki's poetry is known all over the world, has entered the treasury of world culture; such outstanding writers of the East as Omar Khayyam, Nizami, Ferdowsi, Jami, Rumi and many others grew up on his work. They all treated Rudaki as their poetry teacher.


Muhammad Jaloliddini Balkhi
philosopher, Persian and Tajik poet.

Muhammad Jaloliddini Balkhi, also known as Rumi or Mavlono, is an outstanding Tajik-Persian poet-Sufi, who created magnificent works of oriental poetry, mainly in the Tajik-Persian language. He was called Mavlono Jalal ad-Din Muhammadi Balkhi after the name of the city of Balkh, where he comes from.

He was born on September 30, 1207 in the town of Vakhsh (modern Tajikistan) in the northern territories of Balkh, which was at that time a large region of the Khorasan province, in the family of a popular court scholar-theologian-lawyer and Sufi preacher - Muhammad bin Hussein al-Khatibi al -Balkhi, known as Baha ad-Din Walad (1148-1231), forced to flee under the threat of Mongol attack from his hometown and, after long wanderings, settled in Asia Minor (Rum) at the court of the Seljuk Turks in the city of Konya (present-day Turkey)

Jalal ad-Din received a good education not only in theological and juridical, but also in the field of exact sciences, he knew Arabic and Greek languages, the Koran and its interpretation very well.

In the 13th century in the city of Konya, Sultan Valad founded the Mevlevi Sufi order, in whose rituals the works of J. Balkhi Rumi are used. He is the spiritual ancestor of the dervishes of this tariqah, the most influential in Ottoman Turkey and existing in our time.

In his early childhood, he was forced to leave his homeland - Balkh - the main city of Khorasan. His father, Muhammad Bahouddin Walad, was a Sufi and a scholar and theologian. Therefore, he received an invitation from the Shah of Khorezm Muhammad to serve in the palace. But Valad was firm in his convictions, had deep knowledge and was very fair. Under various pretexts, he rejected the Shah's request and remained to teach children at school and continue his scientific and creative activities. On this basis, they had disagreements with the Shah of Khorezm. In order to make the Hajj, he left Balkh with his family.

During a trip to Mecca in Nishapur, he was honored with a conversation with Sheikh Farididdin Muhammad Attor. An inquisitive sheikh became attached to J. Balkhi and dedicated his book "Asrornama" to him, which Jaloliddin always carried with him. The fact that Balkhi reached such heights in poetry, philosophy and theology was the merit of the enlighteners of that time, Sheikh Shamsi Tabrizi and Farididdin Attor. He studied philosophy with Shamsi Tabrizi, in particular, he got acquainted with Sufism

In 1228 Valad received an invitation to take a teaching position in a madrasah in Konya and moved there, but soon, in 1231, he died, and Jaloliddin took his place in the madrasah. A year later, Jaliddin, while remaining a teacher in a madrasah, becomes a student of Valad's like-minded Sheikh Barkhun ad-Din Muhakkik. This spiritual education lasted almost ten years, but it did not change Jaliddin's life: he remains a respected teacher in a madrasah and a preacher in a mosque and lives with his family in contentment and prosperity.

Jaloliddin's entry into the Sufi path is associated with the name of the wandering Sufi preacher Shams ad-Din Tabrizi (Shamsi Tabrezi). The sermons of this dervish and personal communication with him, and then his mysterious disappearance turned the soul of Jaloliddin, and, having experienced the joy of meeting, the all-encompassing love for a friend and the tragedy of loss, he became the genius poet the world knows.

But Jaliddin could no longer live and create without an idol, reminding him with his spiritual qualities of Shams ad-Din who disappeared in 1247. The young jeweler Salah ad-Din Zarkub became such an idol for him, and when he died in 1258, Husam ad-Din Hasan took his place.

It is to Husam ad-Din that the world owes the fact that most of Jaloliddin's poetic works were recorded and preserved for mankind, since the poet usually only recited or hummed them. At his suggestion and with his help, the main work of Jaloliddin Balkhi was created - the six-volume poem "Masnavii Manavi" ("Poem about the Hidden Meaning"). In its hidden sense, this poem is a kind of encyclopedia of Sufism, but this side of it can be appreciated only by those who entered the Sufi path and will be able to discern in it the development of the ideas of Ghazali, Sanaya, Attar and other Sufi authorities of that time.

Rumi's greatness lies in the fact that he was able to rise to the greatest poet and educator in the world. For all currents of the religion of Islam and other religions, he preached a single idea that glorifies love for the Creator, faith in his omnipotence, purity in thoughts and deeds. He wrote: "The paths may be different, but the ultimate goal is the same - to appear before God." Until the end of his life, he propagated that God is one and all are equal before God.

The work of J. Balkhi Rumi "The Essence of Knowledge" is considered a book that has no equal and is written in a peculiar style. He wrote it not in the Rubai style, but in prose. In the book, words are freely pulled out, like from the mouth of a nightingale. Everything is free in it: soul, thoughts, phrases, and state. After Rumi, eight centuries later, poets of the twentieth century began to apply a method in literature that was called blank verse. And it was discovered and used in his work by Jaloliddini Balkhi Rumi in the 13th century.

He wrote his favorite work for 15 years. It has twenty-five thousand six hundred and eighteen verses. The book can be considered a masterpiece of world literature. It is also often called the "The Beginning of Sufism".

At that time it was a great feat to express an opinion about the single origin of all people on earth. Jaloliddin signed his works with different pseudonyms: "Balkhi" - according to the place of his birth, "Shamsi Tabrizi" - the name of a friend and spiritual teacher, but his pseudonym "Rumi" - after the name of the country where he and his relatives found their second homeland - was most famous.

Jaloliddini Balkhi Rumi died in Konya on December 17, 1273 and rests in the mausoleum next to his father. Their grave is an object of pilgrimage and veneration to this day.


Mir Sayyid Ali ibn Shahobuddin Muhammad Hamadoni
Sufi philosopher, poet, eminent Muslim scholar and theologian.

Mir Sayyid Ali ibn Shahobuddin Muhammad Hamadoni, known as Sufi, Miri Kabir (Great Emir), Shohi Hamadon (King of Hamadan), Ali Sonya (Second Ali), is one of the great representatives of the Persian-Tajik philosophical and socio-political thought of the XIV century. He was born on October 22, 714/1314 into an aristocratic family in the Iranian city of Hamadan (Islamic Republic of Iran). His father and mother were educated and cultured people. Father - Sayyid Shahobuddin Hamadoni in the 17th generation reached the Caliph Ali ibn Abutolib. Mother Fatima in the 17th tribe reached the prophet Muhammad, in the 16th tribe to Ali ibn Abutolib.

Hamadoni received his primary education in the family under the guidance of his uncle Sayyid Aloudawly, and then under the guidance of the personal teacher Sharafuddin Mahmud ibn Abdullo Mazdoki and Takidin Ali Dusti. According to historical sources, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni devoted 12 years of his life to travel and visited countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Mecca, Medina, Egypt, Turkey, Central Asia, Ceylon, Ti Bet and others. Analysis of various information, sources and research allows us to conclude that Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni died on January 19, 786/1384 on his way to the town of Kabravsavod Pohli (Pakistan), and according to his will, his disciples and followers transported his body and buried in Khutalyan, the current city of Kulyab in Tajikistan. Subsequently, a mausoleum was erected over his grave, which has remained to this day.

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni left behind him a huge scientific, philosophical and literary heritage. Sources and authors of studies attribute to him about 170 works, most of which have survived to this day. Hamadoni's creative heritage consists mainly of short treatises.

In the development of human civilization, the scientific and pedagogical creativity of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni occupies a special place, since his scientific and educational ideas go beyond local, national and religious interests and serve the development of common human reason and culture.

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is one of those great thinkers whose literary and pedagogical heritage has played a huge role in teaching and educating many peoples of the East, Central Asia and Arab countries.

Research into the work of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni shows that his ideas promoted high human ideals, moral beauty of a person, truthfulness and justice, abstinence and purity of soul and other good moral qualities of people, everything that hindered and was rejecting the development and progress of society. These sincere aspirations of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni in the field of culture and science bore fruit in his era and can serve the current generation of the Tajik people, for they express a truly human desire for cleanliness, truthfulness, justice and kindness.

The valuable creative heritage of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, which is preserved in libraries around the world: in Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, England, Tajikistan, Sweden, Iran, Holland, Pakistan, India, China, Turkey, Russia and many others, can serve as an important source of research for various branches of science and culture - philosophy, pedagogy, psychology and others.

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is known among the peoples of the countries of the East and, in particular, Central Asia as a scientist, poet and thinker. This thinker left behind a huge valuable legacy, which for more than 600 years, having gone through many historical trials, at all times served the moral education and enrichment of the spiritual world of the peoples of different countries and the development of human civilization and now makes its worthy contribution to the moral and cultural development of our people.

The treatises of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni are full of wisdom and edification, for many centuries they have called the people to truthfulness, justice, friendship and comradeship, integrity and virtue, chastity and good human behavior, they warn against all evil deeds and intentions and have great universal significance.

It is known that Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni spent part of his life (over 20 years) traveling to different countries of the East. In his travels, he acted not as a simple traveler, but as a preacher of science, culture and religion of Islam. In addition, the great thinker studied the way of life, customs, rituals and traditions of the peoples of those countries, identified the reasons for the decline in the morality and mores of society, tried to collect valuable information about the role of the family, school, teacher, science and knowledge in the formation of personality. On their basis, Ali Hamadoni tried to bring the upbringing of the younger generation in the family and school into a certain system, which is a very valuable attempt. For it, according to Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, it is in this way that it is possible to improve the upbringing of the younger generation, since such a system of communication between the family and the school in upbringing gives a serious impetus to the upbringing of young people. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni in his works showed the correct ways to solve many problems of teaching and educating the younger generation, such as: mastering science and knowledge, raising children in a family, the role of a teacher in teaching and educating the younger generation, the place of science and knowledge in human life, etc. The works of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni are written on the basis of the study and analysis of the way of life, life experience, rituals and traditions of the peoples of different countries, which testifies to the vitality of the pedagogical ideas of this scientist, which today have not lost their scientific and pedagogical value.

The main goal of the teachings of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is to educate a perfect person in society. And this idea runs like a red thread through all the work of this great thinker of the XIV century, especially in the field of moral and spiritual education of the younger generation. According to Ali Hamadoni, only that person can reach the level of a perfect person who can cleanse his moral and physical world from evil human qualities and, with the help of good qualities, enrich his moral and physical world. The study and analysis of the work of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni shows that he tried to show the life path of a person from his birth (childhood, youth, maturity, etc.) to death and show his rights and obligations, ways and means of gradual purification and enrichment of the moral world.

Ali Hamadoni believed that although the physical beauty of a person depends on God, the enrichment of the moral and spiritual world of a person depends on education and upbringing. Therefore, Ali Hamadoni attached great importance to training and education in the formation of a perfect person and enrichment of his moral world.

It should be said that with the help of his edifying ideas and thoughts, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni called on a person to truth, moral and inner beauty, purification of morals and behavior, refraining from negative qualities and instilled that he reasonably and purposefully use these edifications and wise sayings to correct their actions and behavior.

The basis of the political ideas of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is the fair governance of the state, justice, the good disposition of the padishahs and rulers, refraining from negative desires, not to betray his people, etc. Unlike his great predecessors, Ali Hamadoni considered the padishahs and rulers to be the shadow of God on earth , nevertheless, those rulers and padishahs who were not fair to their subjects and subordinates and did not show sympathy (pity) for God's servant, he considered them God's enemies.

Thus, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni supported a fair and skillful government and demanded that the padishahs and rulers constantly support and protect the interests of the working people, the poor and the weak, and the common people in general.

Ali Hamadoni put help to the poor people higher than the prayers of villains and destroyers. Thus, he put the human factor above the religious, which at that time was of great importance. Ali Hamadoni expressed original thoughts that deserve attention on the problem of aesthetic education. In solving this problem, Ali Hamadoni, unlike his predecessors, chose a different path. In contrast to the official ideas of his predecessors and contemporaries, Ali Hamadoni, in the aesthetic education of the younger generation, instead of honoring the beauty of nature, art and literature, paid more attention to the moral and spiritual beauty of man.

According to Ali Hamadoni, it is moral and spiritual beauty that plays the main role in the formation of a strong ideological conviction (faith in God) and human consciousness. In his opinion, it is moral beauty that is capable of directing a person towards truthfulness, honesty, humanity, responsibility, nobility and other good human qualities, stirring up the heart and spiritual strength and raising it to the heights of a perfect person. The thinker considered moral beauty to be a ray of knowledge for scientists and said:

  • The beauty of meaning became as the light of enlightenment,
  • The secret of pure knowledge has always been beautiful.

  • As soon as the ray of knowledge began to illuminate knowledge,
  • The scientist's mysterious carelessness has become beautiful forever.

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, noting the special role of the family in the education and upbringing of a perfect person, pointed out the ways, means and main directions of family upbringing in the treatise "Zahirat-ul-muluk". According to Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, the correct organization of the educational process of the younger generation, including the assimilation of science and knowledge, the development of skills and abilities, the formation of good spiritual and moral qualities and the preparation of the younger generation for life, largely depends on the family. Noting the need for family education, the thinker emphasized that the main pillars of family education are the strength of the family, correct and positive relationships between parents, and mutual respect in the family. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni argued that strength, kindness, warmth, sincerity, respect in the family depend on the correct relationship of parents, all other family members and relatives. This is the most important link that unites the family and the whole society. All this testifies to the fact that in the educational system of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, the problem of family education occupies one of the central places. According to Ali Hamadoni, in order to bring up good moral qualities in children, parents and other senior family members need to widely use the methods of personal example, persuasion and edification, to teach children a high culture and ethics of communication. According to Ali Hamadoni's instructions, in the process of mastering science and knowledge, crafts and professions, parents have the same great influence on their children as the teacher.

In the pedagogical ideas of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, the problem of assimilating knowledge, prudence and culture also occupies an important place. In his opinion, in the process of forming skills and knowledge, the role of the family and the school is great. In addition, in the development of human mental abilities, he attached great importance to individual learning and self-education, therefore the thinker was a supporter of the individual form of training and self-education of students.

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, in improving the quality of teaching students, recommended the use of methods such as conversation, lecture, discussion, debate, self-education, etc., which are successfully used in modern schools. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni highly appreciated the role of science in human life and considered science the main means of moral education and ensuring personal happiness of each individual. According to the thinker, science in nature (heart) of a person forms good human moral qualities and refrains him from unwanted actions and behaviors. Therefore, he argued that the study of science is necessary not only for obtaining moral and spiritual food, but also for effective use in life. In general, Ali Hamadoni believed that a person with the help of science can improve, reveal the secrets of nature and society, and learn the truth of life. However, this is not an easy task. A person can master the fundamentals of science only with the help of serious and diligent work. Ali Hamadoni, along with the study of theological treatises, recommended the study of secular sciences and showed their role and significance in human life.

In the pedagogical system of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, a special place is occupied by the relationship between the teacher (mentor) and the student in the process of education and training.

The world of Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, on the basis of his life experience, long travels to different countries of the East, direct pedagogical activities and his apprenticeship, came to the conclusion that the relationship between teacher and student plays an important role in improving the quality of teaching and upbringing of students. Therefore, in the educational process between the teacher and the student, a sincere and caring attitude, devotion and trust, patience and endurance, responsibility and gratitude, modesty, mutual respect and other good moral values ​​should always dominate, since it is they that contribute to the formation of a perfect person.

The requirement put forward by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni regarding the relationship between teacher and student is a worthy teacher's personality. In his opinion, in order for a student to master the science and become educated, first of all, the teacher himself needs to be highly educated, wise and highly moral, because only in this case the teacher can become an example to follow and have a positive influence on the actions and behavior of his students.

Another idea put forward by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is the ethics of the student's relationship to his teacher in the educational process. The thinker emphasizes that the student must always respect his teacher, be faithful and caring, follow his instructions, appreciate the work of his teacher. Only in this case will the student be able to reach the shining heights of science and knowledge. The thinker, referring to the teachers, argued that along with teaching and upbringing of students, special attention should be paid to the formation and development of practical skills and knowledge, the application of knowledge in practice.

Thus, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni called people to a peaceful life, constructive and creative work, honest activities to ensure well-being in life, to honesty, truthfulness, humanity, generosity and mercy, justice, friendship and comradeship, cleanliness and neatness, fidelity and warned against arrogance, envy, greed, the desire for wealth and, in general, against negative qualities and flaws. It should be noted that in conditions of political, social, economic difficulties, as well as moral and spiritual turmoil, which human society faces in our time, the pedagogical ideas of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni can serve as a guide in teaching and educating the younger generation, enriching the moral and spiritual world different nations.

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