Sufi philosopher, poet, eminent Muslim scholar and theologian.
Mir Sayyid Ali ibn Shahobuddin Muhammad Hamadoni, known as Sufi, Miri Kabir (Great Emir), Shohi Hamadon (King of Hamadan), Ali Sonya (Second Ali), is one of the great representatives of the Persian-Tajik philosophical and socio-political thought of the XIV century. He was born on October 22, 714/1314 into an aristocratic family in the Iranian city of Hamadan (Islamic Republic of Iran). His father and mother were educated and cultured people. Father - Sayyid Shahobuddin Hamadoni in the 17th generation reached the Caliph Ali ibn Abutolib. Mother Fatima in the 17th tribe reached the prophet Muhammad, in the 16th tribe to Ali ibn Abutolib.
Hamadoni received his primary education in the family under the guidance of his uncle Sayyid Aloudawly, and then under the guidance of the personal teacher Sharafuddin Mahmud ibn Abdullo Mazdoki and Takidin Ali Dusti. According to historical sources, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni devoted 12 years of his life to travel and visited countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Mecca, Medina, Egypt, Turkey, Central Asia, Ceylon, Ti Bet and others. Analysis of various information, sources and research allows us to conclude that Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni died on January 19, 786/1384 on his way to the town of Kabravsavod Pohli (Pakistan), and according to his will, his disciples and followers transported his body and buried in Khutalyan, the current city of Kulyab in Tajikistan. Subsequently, a mausoleum was erected over his grave, which has remained to this day.
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni left behind him a huge scientific, philosophical and literary heritage. Sources and authors of studies attribute to him about 170 works, most of which have survived to this day. Hamadoni's creative heritage consists mainly of short treatises.
In the development of human civilization, the scientific and pedagogical creativity of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni occupies a special place, since his scientific and educational ideas go beyond local, national and religious interests and serve the development of common human reason and culture.
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is one of those great thinkers whose literary and pedagogical heritage has played a huge role in teaching and educating many peoples of the East, Central Asia and Arab countries.
Research into the work of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni shows that his ideas promoted high human ideals, moral beauty of a person, truthfulness and justice, abstinence and purity of soul and other good moral qualities of people, everything that hindered and was rejecting the development and progress of society. These sincere aspirations of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni in the field of culture and science bore fruit in his era and can serve the current generation of the Tajik people, for they express a truly human desire for cleanliness, truthfulness, justice and kindness.
The valuable creative heritage of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, which is preserved in libraries around the world: in Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, England, Tajikistan, Sweden, Iran, Holland, Pakistan, India, China, Turkey, Russia and many others, can serve as an important source of research for various branches of science and culture - philosophy, pedagogy, psychology and others.
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is known among the peoples of the countries of the East and, in particular, Central Asia as a scientist, poet and thinker. This thinker left behind a huge valuable legacy, which for more than 600 years, having gone through many historical trials, at all times served the moral education and enrichment of the spiritual world of the peoples of different countries and the development of human civilization and now makes its worthy contribution to the moral and cultural development of our people.
The treatises of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni are full of wisdom and edification, for many centuries they have called the people to truthfulness, justice, friendship and comradeship, integrity and virtue, chastity and good human behavior, they warn against all evil deeds and intentions and have great universal significance.
It is known that Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni spent part of his life (over 20 years) traveling to different countries of the East. In his travels, he acted not as a simple traveler, but as a preacher of science, culture and religion of Islam. In addition, the great thinker studied the way of life, customs, rituals and traditions of the peoples of those countries, identified the reasons for the decline in the morality and mores of society, tried to collect valuable information about the role of the family, school, teacher, science and knowledge in the formation of personality. On their basis, Ali Hamadoni tried to bring the upbringing of the younger generation in the family and school into a certain system, which is a very valuable attempt. For it, according to Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, it is in this way that it is possible to improve the upbringing of the younger generation, since such a system of communication between the family and the school in upbringing gives a serious impetus to the upbringing of young people. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni in his works showed the correct ways to solve many problems of teaching and educating the younger generation, such as: mastering science and knowledge, raising children in a family, the role of a teacher in teaching and educating the younger generation, the place of science and knowledge in human life, etc. The works of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni are written on the basis of the study and analysis of the way of life, life experience, rituals and traditions of the peoples of different countries, which testifies to the vitality of the pedagogical ideas of this scientist, which today have not lost their scientific and pedagogical value.
The main goal of the teachings of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is to educate a perfect person in society. And this idea runs like a red thread through all the work of this great thinker of the XIV century, especially in the field of moral and spiritual education of the younger generation. According to Ali Hamadoni, only that person can reach the level of a perfect person who can cleanse his moral and physical world from evil human qualities and, with the help of good qualities, enrich his moral and physical world. The study and analysis of the work of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni shows that he tried to show the life path of a person from his birth (childhood, youth, maturity, etc.) to death and show his rights and obligations, ways and means of gradual purification and enrichment of the moral world.
Ali Hamadoni believed that although the physical beauty of a person depends on God, the enrichment of the moral and spiritual world of a person depends on education and upbringing. Therefore, Ali Hamadoni attached great importance to training and education in the formation of a perfect person and enrichment of his moral world.
It should be said that with the help of his edifying ideas and thoughts, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni called on a person to truth, moral and inner beauty, purification of morals and behavior, refraining from negative qualities and instilled that he reasonably and purposefully use these edifications and wise sayings to correct their actions and behavior.
The basis of the political ideas of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is the fair governance of the state, justice, the good disposition of the padishahs and rulers, refraining from negative desires, not to betray his people, etc. Unlike his great predecessors, Ali Hamadoni considered the padishahs and rulers to be the shadow of God on earth , nevertheless, those rulers and padishahs who were not fair to their subjects and subordinates and did not show sympathy (pity) for God's servant, he considered them God's enemies.
Thus, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni supported a fair and skillful government and demanded that the padishahs and rulers constantly support and protect the interests of the working people, the poor and the weak, and the common people in general.
Ali Hamadoni put help to the poor people higher than the prayers of villains and destroyers. Thus, he put the human factor above the religious, which at that time was of great importance. Ali Hamadoni expressed original thoughts that deserve attention on the problem of aesthetic education. In solving this problem, Ali Hamadoni, unlike his predecessors, chose a different path. In contrast to the official ideas of his predecessors and contemporaries, Ali Hamadoni, in the aesthetic education of the younger generation, instead of honoring the beauty of nature, art and literature, paid more attention to the moral and spiritual beauty of man.
According to Ali Hamadoni, it is moral and spiritual beauty that plays the main role in the formation of a strong ideological conviction (faith in God) and human consciousness. In his opinion, it is moral beauty that is capable of directing a person towards truthfulness, honesty, humanity, responsibility, nobility and other good human qualities, stirring up the heart and spiritual strength and raising it to the heights of a perfect person. The thinker considered moral beauty to be a ray of knowledge for scientists and said:
- The beauty of meaning became as the light of enlightenment,
- The secret of pure knowledge has always been beautiful.
- As soon as the ray of knowledge began to illuminate knowledge,
- The scientist's mysterious carelessness has become beautiful forever.
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, noting the special role of the family in the education and upbringing of a perfect person, pointed out the ways, means and main directions of family upbringing in the treatise "Zahirat-ul-muluk". According to Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, the correct organization of the educational process of the younger generation, including the assimilation of science and knowledge, the development of skills and abilities, the formation of good spiritual and moral qualities and the preparation of the younger generation for life, largely depends on the family. Noting the need for family education, the thinker emphasized that the main pillars of family education are the strength of the family, correct and positive relationships between parents, and mutual respect in the family. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni argued that strength, kindness, warmth, sincerity, respect in the family depend on the correct relationship of parents, all other family members and relatives. This is the most important link that unites the family and the whole society. All this testifies to the fact that in the educational system of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, the problem of family education occupies one of the central places. According to Ali Hamadoni, in order to bring up good moral qualities in children, parents and other senior family members need to widely use the methods of personal example, persuasion and edification, to teach children a high culture and ethics of communication. According to Ali Hamadoni's instructions, in the process of mastering science and knowledge, crafts and professions, parents have the same great influence on their children as the teacher.
In the pedagogical ideas of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, the problem of assimilating knowledge, prudence and culture also occupies an important place. In his opinion, in the process of forming skills and knowledge, the role of the family and the school is great. In addition, in the development of human mental abilities, he attached great importance to individual learning and self-education, therefore the thinker was a supporter of the individual form of training and self-education of students.
Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, in improving the quality of teaching students, recommended the use of methods such as conversation, lecture, discussion, debate, self-education, etc., which are successfully used in modern schools. Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni highly appreciated the role of science in human life and considered science the main means of moral education and ensuring personal happiness of each individual. According to the thinker, science in nature (heart) of a person forms good human moral qualities and refrains him from unwanted actions and behaviors. Therefore, he argued that the study of science is necessary not only for obtaining moral and spiritual food, but also for effective use in life. In general, Ali Hamadoni believed that a person with the help of science can improve, reveal the secrets of nature and society, and learn the truth of life. However, this is not an easy task. A person can master the fundamentals of science only with the help of serious and diligent work. Ali Hamadoni, along with the study of theological treatises, recommended the study of secular sciences and showed their role and significance in human life.
In the pedagogical system of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, a special place is occupied by the relationship between the teacher (mentor) and the student in the process of education and training.
The world of Sayyid Ali Hamadoni, on the basis of his life experience, long travels to different countries of the East, direct pedagogical activities and his apprenticeship, came to the conclusion that the relationship between teacher and student plays an important role in improving the quality of teaching and upbringing of students. Therefore, in the educational process between the teacher and the student, a sincere and caring attitude, devotion and trust, patience and endurance, responsibility and gratitude, modesty, mutual respect and other good moral values should always dominate, since it is they that contribute to the formation of a perfect person.
The requirement put forward by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni regarding the relationship between teacher and student is a worthy teacher's personality. In his opinion, in order for a student to master the science and become educated, first of all, the teacher himself needs to be highly educated, wise and highly moral, because only in this case the teacher can become an example to follow and have a positive influence on the actions and behavior of his students.
Another idea put forward by Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni is the ethics of the student's relationship to his teacher in the educational process. The thinker emphasizes that the student must always respect his teacher, be faithful and caring, follow his instructions, appreciate the work of his teacher. Only in this case will the student be able to reach the shining heights of science and knowledge. The thinker, referring to the teachers, argued that along with teaching and upbringing of students, special attention should be paid to the formation and development of practical skills and knowledge, the application of knowledge in practice.
Thus, Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni called people to a peaceful life, constructive and creative work, honest activities to ensure well-being in life, to honesty, truthfulness, humanity, generosity and mercy, justice, friendship and comradeship, cleanliness and neatness, fidelity and warned against arrogance, envy, greed, the desire for wealth and, in general, against negative qualities and flaws. It should be noted that in conditions of political, social, economic difficulties, as well as moral and spiritual turmoil, which human society faces in our time, the pedagogical ideas of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadoni can serve as a guide in teaching and educating the younger generation, enriching the moral and spiritual world different nations.